The risk of sciatica increases with age. Sciatica causes pain, tingling/numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the lower back, buttocks, legs, and feet.1 Sometimes sciatica is caused by degenerative conditions, like arthritis—and lifestyle factors are at play, as well.2
Radiculopathy is a condition in which a nerve root in the spinal column is compressed. Sciatica is a type of lumbar (lower spine) radiculopathy in which the sciatic nerve is compressed.
Age as Sciatica Risk Factor
One of the main risk factors for sciatica is getting older. With age, many issues can contribute to spine degeneration.3 Age-related changes can bring on sciatica due to changes in your intervertebral discs, bone spurs, and spinal stenosis.
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc usually starts around the age of 30.4
Spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spine) usually first crops up in people older than 50.5
Arthritic changes in the spine, such as bone spurs, can develop after years of arthritis.
Additionally, the discs themselves have begun their descent to vulnerability -- the older you get, the more resilience you've likely lost in your spinal discs.6
Because of work, social, and sports activities, people between the ages of 30 and 50 have a higher likelihood of spine injury or other types of spine damage, which can lead to sciatica.7
A Sedentary Lifestyle
While injuries from activities can damage your spine, sitting as a regular habit ups your sciatica risk too.
You might find yourself sitting for prolonged periods of time while working at a computer, driving a lot, behaving like a couch potato, and the like.8
A big reason that sitting can lead to sciatica is that sitting compresses your spine and discs, which—depending on your spine condition—may irritate a spinal nerve root. Another reason is that sitting may put pressure on the sciatic nerve directly, as in the case of piriformis syndrome.
Manual Labor and Your Sciatica Risk
Frequently lifting heavy loads and/or repeatedly twisting the spine is associated with disc herniation, which often results in lumbar radiculopathy.
Another work-related risk factor is vibration, such as operating a jackhammer.
Walkers and Runners
The two sports that are most likely to increase the risk for sciatica symptoms are walking and running.9 This is likely due to the repeated contraction of the piriformis muscle. During extended periods of walking and running, the piriformis muscle tightens to help you propel yourself forward. When the piriformis muscle becomes tight, it can cause irritation to the sciatic nerve, which runs under it.
A 2002 Finnish study published in Spine Journal showed that walking is associated with the onset of sciatica symptoms, while jogging is associated with a continuation of symptoms. The study looked at 327 workers with sciatica, and 2,077 workers without sciatica.3
Other Groups: Pregnant Women, Diabetics
Obesity can increase the risk of sciatic due to physical pressure on the nerve. People with diabetes are prone to nerve damage, including damage to the sciatic nerve.
And due to hormonal changes and changes in the position of the baby, the risk of sciatica is greatly increased during pregnancy as well.