Tight Quad Muscles and How They Relate to Low Back Pain

Tight Quad Muscles and How They Relate to Low Back Pain

Are your quadriceps muscles tight? If they are (as they tend to be in most people), they may be creating a chronic posture problem. There are two main mechanisms by which this can occur, and quite often both are at play at the same time.
First, by pulling the front of the pelvis down, tight quads can lead to tight and painful lower back muscles. Second, tight quads can contribute to weak hamstring muscles. Hamstring muscles are the quads' opposing muscles; they are located at the back of your thigh.

Both scenarios can affect your pelvic alignment, which in turn, may affect your posture and pain levels. Here’s what happens.

Tight Quads Pull the Pelvis Down
The quadriceps are front-of-thigh muscles. One of the four muscles that comprise this group—the rectus femoris—attaches to the pelvis at a place called the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). This means the rectus femoris is the only one in the quadriceps group that crosses over your hip joint (and affects movement there).1

Keep things simple by thinking of your ASIS as the front part of your hip bone. For your reference, the ASIS is a place you can actually touch.

When the quads (and especially the rectus femoris) get really tight, they pull on the hip bone, which in turn tips the whole pelvis downward, or forward, into a position technically called anterior tilt of the pelvis.

Because the spine wedges in between the two halves of the pelvis, if the pelvis is brought into an abnormal forward tilt by your tight quads, the lumbar spine can adopt more curvature than it is supposed to have.

This tends to increase the arch in your lower back. An increased lower back arch, technically called excessive lordosis, is often accompanied by very tight (and painful) back muscles. Tight quadriceps muscle also may result in weak or overstretched hamstring muscles.

Tight Quads Overpower Hamstrings
At the hip, the hamstring muscles attach on your sitting bones (the small bones you can feel when you sit a lot). If you have good posture in general, most likely there's enough tone in your hamstrings at any given time to pull your pelvis down a bit in the back. This is a good thing because it helps keep the pelvis in the best position possible.

But much of this back-protecting muscle tone can be lost if your quadriceps are tight. When your quads are too tight, as the pelvis is pulled down in front, there is a corresponding lift up in back, near where the sitting bones are. This puts the hamstring "on a stretch," as therapists like to say.

If you don't strengthen your hamstrings and stretch your quads, most likely the hamstrings lose their ability to support your ideal pelvic and spinal positions.

Knowing When You Have Tight Quads
Because of our sedentary culture, and in particular how much time we spend seated every day, most of us have tight quadriceps. The more time you spend in a chair, the tighter these—as well as your lower back muscles—will likely get.

Other than that quick lifestyle evaluation, how do you know if your quads are too tight? Going to your doctor and/or physical therapist for a posture evaluation is perhaps the most accurate and reliable way to determine how tight your quadriceps muscles really are.

There are also a few screening tests you can give yourself:

Try standing up and push your hips forward. (Push from your sitting bones in order to target the correct level.) How far forward can you go and what does that feel like? If you have pain and/or limitation, you may have tight quadriceps.
If you are able to assume a lunge position where one leg is forward (and bent) in front of the other, and the back leg is straight, ask yourself the same question as in #1. What does it feel like at the front of your hip of the back leg?
If you do yoga, yet another way to tell if your quads are too tight is to reflect on your Warrior II pose (also known as Virabhadrasana II). This is a standing pose in which your front leg is bent and your back leg is straight. If you have tight quadriceps (and psoas) muscles, you'll likely feel it in your back leg in this pose.
The Camel pose puts the quads on a stretch. From a kneeling position, arch back gently with the ultimate goal of grasping your ankles behind you. Modify the pose to accommodate any pain or joint issues. If you need to prop up and modify the pose a lot in order to tolerate the pain, chances are your quads are tight.
If you can easily touch your toes while bending at your hip joints (and not your lower back), this is another possible sign that your quads may be too tight.
Test Your Quad Muscles for Too Much Tension
A Word From Verywell
Once you have determined that you have tight quadriceps muscles, the next step is readily available. The fix for chronically tight quad muscles is certainly simple enough—stretch them.

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